It is one of the collections based upon which Oltenia Museum was set up.

The first pieces of the collection were donated by Alexandru and Aristia Aman, patron of arts from Craiova. A significant contribution to the development and study of the collection has been brought forth, among others, by great scientists: C. S. Nicolăescu-Plopşor, Alexandra Bolomey, Alexandru Firu, Costin Rădulescu, Petre Mihai Samson, Constantin Enache.

Nowadays, the collection includes 16,340 pieces (plants, invertebrates, vertebrates), most of them being discovered on the territory of Oltenia. Mammal fossils are remarkable (caballine, bovine, cervidae, carnivorous species etc.) discovered in Bugiuleşti (Valea lui Grăuncean, Vâlcea county, superior Pliocene period), cave bear fossils discovered at Peştera Muierilor, Baia de Fier, Gorj county, assigned to the superior Pliocene period, or Roman mollusks discovered near Craiova, at Podari and Bucovăţ.

The collection contains over 200 proboscidian molar teeth (Anancus arvernensis, Mammuth borsoni, Mammuthus rumanus, Mammuthus meridionalis, Mammuthus trgontherii, Mammuthus primigenius).

Restorations of the mastodon skeleton (Anancus arvernensis) discovered in 1928 at Stoina, Gorj county, cave bear skeleton (Ursus spelaeus) from Peştera Muierilor (1929), mastodon mandibular teeth (Mammuth borsoni) from Veleni, Dolj county, all are of great importance for the museum collections.

After 1989, the collection of Paleontology has been completed with some valuable pieces owned by the Pleistocene Mammals Association (Mammuthus meridionalis, Stephanorhinus grup etruscus/hundsheimensis, Plesippus athanasiui, Leptobos cf. furtivus etc.) discovered at Leu, Dolj county, and several Pliocene mammals from Colţeşti, Gorj county.