It is one of the first collections of Oltenia Museum. The first pieces (gold ore, copper ore, charcoal, limestone etc.) belonged to Oltenia region. Eventually, through acquisitions, donations, collections, the number of pieces grew, currently reaching about 1,200 minerals and rocks from the country and abroad (Algeria, Poland, Russia etc.).

The most valuable piece of the collection is the meteorite from Sopot (Dolj county), that fell on April 27, 1927. The mineral samples discovered for the first time on the territory of Romania (nagyagite, rhodochrosite, semseyite) are also valuable, as well as the “crystal clusters”, minerals or mineral groups, with forms, sizes and colors that are truly exquisite.