Malacology collections include a number of 27.327 native and exotic mollusks (liquid preserved shells) coming from acquisitions, donations or collections performed by specialists during field researches.

The malacologic patrimony of Oltenia Museum in Craiova was established over the course of several decades, starting with 1972, by acquiring the collection of Al. V. Grossu, containing 5,000 specimens from 409 species, the biggest share belonging to gasteropods (325 species), followed by bivalves (83 species) and chitons. The scientific importance is reflected in the 25 present paratypes, specimens from the original collection of the famous naturalist and 70 endemic species.

The collection of I. P. Licherdopol holds a great documentary and historic importance, Licherdopol was a researcher who first described the gasteropode species in Romanian, said collection including 3,496 specimens from 185 species. Mollusks that came from various zoogeographic regions (Indo-Pacific region, Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, etc.) must also be mentioned; they were obtained through donations made by certain specialists: A. Vincenz – 80 specimens, A. Popescu Gorj – 72 specimens, Dinu Alexandru – 47 specimens, Mircea Popescu – 15 specimens.

The biggest share is held by gasteropodes and bivalves, resulted from field collections, as a result of ecological researches performed by specialists of the museum in various bio-geographical areas in the country, and especially in Oltenia.

Six paratypes from Al. V. Grossu’s collection (Gibbula euxinica Grossu 1956, Bythinella dacica Grossu 1946, Alopia helenae ciucasiana Grossu 1969, A. occulta nordsiecki Grossu & Tessio 1973, A. vranceana Grossu 1967, Daudebardia (Libania) dacica Grossu 1969) are currently filed under the category Thesaurus pieces belonging to the national cultural patrimony and 21 species from the same collection are filed under the category Fund.

Regarding the preservation status, 15 freshwater mollusks species and 20 ground gasteropode species in Romania, present in the collection, were registered in the European Red List of Non-marine Mollusks within the program designed by IUCN (IUCN Species Programme Cambrige United Kingdom 2011).

The collection with hydro-biologic characteristics is another category of collections, including specimens belonging to the following groups of invertebrates: coelenterata, annelid, crustacea, myriapoda, echinoderm.

The collection is scientifically prepared by Dr. Olivia Cioboiu, curator.