Livestock represented one of the traditional occupations of Oltenia. Archaeologically, farming is attested from the primitive community. The domestic horse is spreading across the country during the transition to the Bronze Age, and it starts to be used as a riding animal from the first Iron Age. During Iron Age farming gains such importance that in the eighth century BC, the economy was based on raising horses and flocks of sheep. At that time, agricultural tools were used with animal traction. For Dacians the shepherding was a main occupation. Until the sixteenth century, animals have served, in some cases, as equivalent of exchange, currency of payment of debts.
Objects in the collections of the department are varied and represent different types of wooden vessels used for milk collection and storage of cheese – “brădoaica” - made from a single tree trunk, buckets, churns with churn staff to extract butter, strainers, measures of milk. Important through their usefulness are the metal bells of various sizes, indispensable to avoid straying flocks, frequent reality in the world of pastors, also recorded by the folk music.
Besides these, a large number of objects is formed of those used in the pastoral household as: crutches with metal cooking pot, wooden spoons of various shapes, goatskin bottles for transport of soft cow cheese, tissue wallets, used in the transport of different objects at the sheepfold.