The national cultural patrimony and the museum patrimony of botany from the Department of Science of Oltenia Museum include over 8,865 pieces.

The 760 herbarium sheets are of great importance, donated by the great botanist Erazmus Gyula Nyárády, member of the Romanian Academy, who became in 1949 honorary coordinator of the 13 volumes on the Romanian Flora. The material was gathered and prepared by his Excellency during the trips made between 1928-1930 in Oltenia, from the Carpathians mountains up to the Danube.

Over the time, the collection of plants was completed through other donations (Flora Oltenieae Exsiccata -1,100 species; the donation of the Faculty of Agriculture - 38 species; donations from various persons (60) - herbarium V. Bucşan, herbarium M. Diţu, herbarium A. Iliescu etc.) and acquisitions (acquisition by M. Păun - 98 species).

Over 500 herbarium sheets, seeds from spontaneous and cultivated plants (171 species), ligneous essences (pieces of dendrology - 150), come from collections and scientific researchers performed by the museum's specialists in various areas of Oltenia (collections – 4,756). The collection was enriched through acquisitions of mouldings of fruits, vegetables, mushrooms (120), artificial flowers (46), plastic plants (437), lichens (42 species) etc. Beginning with 2009, the collection has been enriched by 24 species of perennial plants, 8 ligneous essences for the dendrology collection and 14 types of seed, 200 fruits, leaves and dendrologic samples belonging to the Pinatae class and the Betulaceae and Fagaceae families, with the purpose of forming a complete collection for each and every species.

Among the species of flora protected by law and/or found on the Red List of superior plants from Romania, that already are present in the museum collections of botany, we can name: the cuckoo flower (Paeonia peregrina Mill., romanica variation); the edelweiss (Leontopodium alpinum Cass.), a rare species that was declared natural monument in 1933; the iris (Iris pseudacorus L.) etc.

Among wild flora holding a high economical value, the museum collection includes: the dog rose (Rosa canina L.); common hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.); common mallow (Malva sylvestris L.); Saint John's wort (Hypericum perforatrum L.); camomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.); elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.); small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata Mill.); yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.); heartsease (Viola tricolor L.); black locust (Robinia pseudacaccua L.); white clover (Trifolium repens L.); pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.); ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.); scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) etc. Collected leaves are also of great value: dandelion (Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg.), stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.), ramsons (Allium ursinum L.), walnut (Juglans regia L.), whortleberry (Vaccinium myrtillus Jacq.), scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), common hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.) etc. and other examples may be mentioned, the flora of Oltenia being one of the richest in the country.

The collection is managed and brought to its scientific, cultural and educational value by Mrs. curator Daniela Măceșeanu.